Published on in Vol 9 (2023)

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
How Does ChatGPT Perform on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)? The Implications of Large Language Models for Medical Education and Knowledge Assessment

How Does ChatGPT Perform on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)? The Implications of Large Language Models for Medical Education and Knowledge Assessment

How Does ChatGPT Perform on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)? The Implications of Large Language Models for Medical Education and Knowledge Assessment


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  513. Parente H, Soares C, Pontes Ferreira M, Cunha A, Guimarães F, Azevedo S, Afonso C, Teixeira F, Tavares-Costa J. ChatGPT’s accuracy and patient-oriented answers about fibromyalgia. ARP Rheumatology 2024;3(1):58 View
  514. Pabreja K, Pabreja N. Understanding College Students’ Satisfaction With ChatGPT: An Exploratory And Predictive Machine Learning Approach Using Feature Engineering. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices 2024:37 View
  515. Shojaee-Mend H, Mohebbati R, Amiri M, Atarodi A. Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of large language models in answering neurophysiology questions. Scientific Reports 2024;14(1) View
  516. Prokhorova Y, Gujrati R, Uygun H. The use of AI Chatbots in higher education: the problem of plagiarism. Review of Artificial Intelligence in Education 2024;5:e031 View
  517. Rusinovich Y, Rusinovich V. Prevention of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Misuse in Online Medical Education. Web3 Journal: ML in Health Science 2024;1(1) View
  518. Fahmi H. kakamad , Yadgar N. Abbas , Hemn A. Hassan , Dyari Qadir Hamad , Sabah Jalal Hasan , Diyar A. Omer , Suhaib H. Kakamad , Hussein M. HamaSalih , Marwan N. Hassan , Hawbash M. Rahim , Rawezh Q. Salih , Berun A. Abdalla , Shvan H. Mohammed , Yousif M. Mahmood . Role of ChatGPT and Google Bard in the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Comparative Study. Barw Medical Journal 2023 View
  519. Liu J, Hui K, Al Zoubi F, Zhou Z, Samartzis D, Yu C, Chang J, Wong A. The great detectives: humans versus AI detectors in catching large language model-generated medical writing. International Journal for Educational Integrity 2024;20(1) View
  520. Aso S. Muhialdeen , Shorsh A. Mohammed , Nahida Hama Ameen Ahmed , Shaho F. Ahmed , Wriya N. Hassan , Hoshmand R. Asaad , Dana T. Gharib , Huda M. Muhammad , Shko H. Hassan , Karokh Fadhil Hama Hussein , Hemin S. Mohammed , Abdulwahid M. Salih , Fahmi H. kakamad , Muhammed Karim , Fakher Abdullah , Hemn A. Hassan , Sasan M. Ahmed , Suhaib H. Kakamad , Marwan N. Hassan , Shvan H. Mohammed , Berun A. Abdalla . Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: A Comparative Study of ChatGPT and Google Bard in Clinical Diagnostics. Barw Medical Journal 2023 View
  521. Zardasht Mahmud Ahamed , Hardi Mohammed Dhahir , Miran Mawlood Mohammed , Rebaz Haji Ali , Shko H. Hassan , Aso S. Muhialdeen , Yadgar Abdulhameed Saeed , Mariwan L. Fatah , Aras J. Qaradakhy , Rawa M. Ali , Shaho F. Ahmed , Ari M. Abdullah , Hawbash M. Rahim , Berun A. Abdalla , Abdulwahid M. Salih , Shvan H. Mohammed , Fahmi H. kakamad . Comparative Analysis of ChatGPT and Human Decision-Making in Thyroid and Neck Swellings: A Case-Based Study. Barw Medical Journal 2023 View
  522. Kasapovic A, Ali T, Babasiz M, Bojko J, Gathen M, Kaczmarczyk R, Roos J. Does the Information Quality of ChatGPT Meet the Requirements of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery?. Cureus 2024 View
  523. Lambert R, Choo Z, Gradwohl K, Schroedl L, Ruiz De Luzuriaga A. Assessing the Application of Large Language Models in Generating Dermatologic Patient Education Materials According to Reading Level: Qualitative Study. JMIR Dermatology 2024;7:e55898 View
  524. Mackey B, Garabet R, Maule L, Tadesse A, Cross J, Weingarten M. Evaluating ChatGPT-4 in medical education: an assessment of subject exam performance reveals limitations in clinical curriculum support for students. Discover Artificial Intelligence 2024;4(1) View
  525. Yanagita Y, Yokokawa D, Fukuzawa F, Uchida S, Uehara T, Ikusaka M. Expert assessment of ChatGPT’s ability to generate illness scripts: an evaluative study. BMC Medical Education 2024;24(1) View
  526. Ranjan J, Ahmad A, Subudhi M, Kumar A. Assessment of Artificial Intelligence Platforms With Regard to Medical Microbiology Knowledge: An Analysis of ChatGPT and Gemini. Cureus 2024 View
  527. Meşe İ, Altıntaş Taşlıçay C, Kuzan B, Kuzan T, Sivrioğlu A. Educating the next generation of radiologists: a comparative report of ChatGPT and e-learning resources. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology 2024;30(3):163 View
  528. Kufel J, Paszkiewicz I, Bielówka M, Bartnikowska W, Janik M, Stencel M, Czogalik Ł, Gruszczyńska K, Mielcarska S. Will ChatGPT pass the Polish specialty exam in radiology and diagnostic imaging? Insights into strengths and limitations. Polish Journal of Radiology 2023;88:430 View
  529. Igarashi Y, Nakahara K, Norii T, Miyake N, Tagami T, Yokobori S. Performance of a Large Language Model on Japanese Emergency Medicine Board Certification Examinations. Journal of Nippon Medical School 2024;91(2):155 View
  530. Cahyana D, Hadiarto A, Irawan , Hati D, Pratamaningsih M, Karolinoerita V, Mulyani A, Sukarman , Hikmat M, Ramadhani F, Gani R, Yatno E, Heryanto R, Suratman , Gofar N, Suriadikusumah A. Application of ChatGPT in soil science research and the perceptions of soil scientists in Indonesia. Artificial Intelligence in Geosciences 2024;5:100078 View
  531. Munir F, Gehres A, Wai D, Song L. Evaluation of ChatGPT as a Tool for Answering Clinical Questions in Pharmacy Practice. Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2024 View
  532. Naqvi W, Shaikh S, Mishra G. Large language models in physical therapy: time to adapt and adept. Frontiers in Public Health 2024;12 View
  533. Laohawetwanit T, Apornvirat S, Kantasiripitak C. ChatGPT as a teaching tool: Preparing pathology residents for board examination with AI-generated digestive system pathology tests. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 2024 View
  534. Tran C, Chang J, Sherman S, De Andrade J. Performance of ChatGPT on American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination Preparation Questions. Journal of Surgical Research 2024;299:329 View
  535. Wachinger J, Bärnighausen K, Schäfer L, Scott K, McMahon S. Prompts, Pearls, Imperfections: Comparing ChatGPT and a Human Researcher in Qualitative Data Analysis. Qualitative Health Research 2024 View
  536. Cahill C, McCabe K. Context Matters: Understanding Student Usage, Skills, and Attitudes Toward AI to Inform Classroom Policies. PS: Political Science & Politics 2024:1 View
  537. Meyer A, Soleman A, Riese J, Streichert T. Comparison of ChatGPT, Gemini, and Le Chat with physician interpretations of medical laboratory questions from an online health forum. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) 2024;0(0) View
  538. Albadarin Y, Saqr M, Pope N, Tukiainen M. A systematic literature review of empirical research on ChatGPT in education. Discover Education 2024;3(1) View
  539. Yaïci R, Cieplucha M, Bock R, Moayed F, Bechrakis N, Berens P, Feltgen N, Friedburg D, Gräf M, Guthoff R, Hoffmann E, Hoerauf H, Hintschich C, Kohnen T, Messmer E, Nentwich M, Pleyer U, Schaudig U, Seitz B, Geerling G, Roth M. ChatGPT und die deutsche Facharztprüfung für Augenheilkunde: eine Evaluierung. Die Ophthalmologie 2024 View
  540. Mousavi M, Shafiee S, Harley J, Cheung J, Abbasgholizadeh Rahimi S. Performance of generative pre-trained transformers (GPTs) in Certification Examination of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Family Medicine and Community Health 2024;12(Suppl 1):e002626 View
  541. Landman R, Healey S, Loprinzo V, Kochendoerfer U, Winnier A, Henstock P, Lin W, Chen A, Rajendran A, Penshanwar S, Khan S, Madhavan S. Using large language models for safety-related table summarization in clinical study reports. JAMIA Open 2024;7(2) View
  542. Polat E, Polat Y, Senturk E, Dogan R, Yenigun A, Tugrul S, Eren S, Aksoy F, Ozturan O. Evaluating the accuracy and readability of ChatGPT in providing parental guidance for adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, and ventilation tube insertion surgery. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2024;181:111998 View
  543. Zhong T, Zhu G, Hou C, Wang Y, Fan X. The influences of ChatGPT on undergraduate students’ demonstrated and perceived interdisciplinary learning. Education and Information Technologies 2024 View
  544. Okulich-Kazarin V. New chatGPT 3.5 Instruction (Prompt) to Calculate Statistical Indicators for Student Graduation Projects. WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER RESEARCH 2024;12:307 View
  545. Pregowska A, Perkins M. Artificial intelligence in medical education: Typologies and ethical approaches. Ethics & Bioethics 2024;14(1-2):96 View
  546. Nielsen J, Grønhøj C, Skov L, Gyldenløve M. Usefulness of the large language model ChatGPT (GPT‐4) as a diagnostic tool and information source in dermatology. JEADV Clinical Practice 2024 View
  547. Thomas A, Duggal H, Khatri P, Corvello V. ChatGPT appropriation: A catalyst for creative performance, innovation orientation, and agile leadership. Technology in Society 2024;78:102619 View
  548. Rao S, Isath A, Krishnan P, Tangsrivimol J, Virk H, Wang Z, Glicksberg B, Krittanawong C. ChatGPT: A Conceptual Review of Applications and Utility in the Field of Medicine. Journal of Medical Systems 2024;48(1) View
  549. Altamimi I, Alhumimidi A, Alshehri S, Alrumayan A, Al-khlaiwi T, Meo S, Temsah M. The scientific knowledge of three large language models in cardiology: multiple-choice questions examination-based performance. Annals of Medicine & Surgery 2024;86(6):3261 View
  550. Zarei M, Zarei M, Hamzehzadeh S, Shakeri Bavil Oliyaei S, Hosseini M. ChatGPT, a Friend or a Foe in Medical Education: A Review of Strengths, Challenges, and Opportunities. Shiraz E-Medical Journal 2024;25(6) View
  551. van Nuland M. ChatGPT and Factual Knowledge Questions Regarding Clinical Pharmacy: Response to Letter to the Editor. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2024 View
  552. Jyothy S, Kolil V, Raman R, Achuthan K. Exploring large language models as an integrated tool for learning, teaching, and research through the Fogg Behavior Model: a comprehensive mixed-methods analysis. Cogent Engineering 2024;11(1) View
  553. Knoedler L, Knoedler S, Hoch C, Prantl L, Frank K, Soiderer L, Cotofana S, Dorafshar A, Schenck T, Vollbach F, Sofo G, Alfertshofer M. In-depth analysis of ChatGPT’s performance based on specific signaling words and phrases in the question stem of 2377 USMLE step 1 style questions. Scientific Reports 2024;14(1) View
  554. Arthur F, Salifu I, Abam Nortey S. Predictors of higher education students’ behavioural intention and usage of ChatGPT: the moderating roles of age, gender and experience. Interactive Learning Environments 2024:1 View
  555. Tan S, Xin X, Wu D. ChatGPT in medicine: prospects and challenges: a review article. International Journal of Surgery 2024;110(6):3701 View
  556. Batool I, Naved N, Kazmi S, Umer F. Leveraging Large Language Models in the delivery of post-operative dental care: a comparison between an embedded GPT model and ChatGPT. BDJ Open 2024;10(1) View
  557. Caspi R, Karp P. An evaluation of ChatGPT and Bard (Gemini) in the context of biological knowledge retrieval. Access Microbiology 2024;6(6) View
  558. Matsler N, Pepin L, Banerji S, Hoyte C, Heard K. Use of large language models to optimize poison center charting. Clinical Toxicology 2024:1 View
  559. Ogunleye B, Zakariyyah K, Ajao O, Olayinka O, Sharma H. A Systematic Review of Generative AI for Teaching and Learning Practice. Education Sciences 2024;14(6):636 View
  560. Fiedler B, Azua E, Phillips T, Ahmed A. ChatGPT performance on the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons maintenance of certification exam. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2024 View
  561. Sparks C, Kraeutler M, Chester G, Contrada E, Zhu E, Fasulo S, Scillia A. Inadequate Performance of ChatGPT on Orthopedic Board-Style Written Exams. Cureus 2024 View
  562. Chen H, Zhang S, Zhang L, Geng J, Lu J, Hou C, He P, Lu X. Multi role ChatGPT framework for transforming medical data analysis. Scientific Reports 2024;14(1) View
  563. Zabelin D, Plashcheva E, Lanina S. Interactive Chatbot ChatGPT in Education: Challenges and Opportunities. Prepodavatel XXI vek 2023;(4/1):94 View
  564. Aden D, Zaheer S, Khan S. Possible benefits, challenges, pitfalls, and future perspective of using ChatGPT in pathology. Revista Española de Patología 2024 View
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  566. Taveekitworachai P, Chanmas G, Paliyawan P, Thawonmas R, Nukoolkit C, Dajpratham P, Thawonmas R. A systematic review of major evaluation metrics for simulator-based automatic assessment of driving after stroke. Heliyon 2024;10(12):e32930 View
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Books/Policy Documents

  1. Lin S, Chung H, Chung F, Lan Y. Innovative Technologies and Learning. View
  2. Guan C, Ding D, Gupta P, Hung Y, Jiang Z. Exploring Cyber Criminals and Data Privacy Measures. View
  3. Maney K. Creative AI Tools and Ethical Implications in Teaching and Learning. View
  4. Twinomurinzi H, Gumbo S. South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists. View
  5. Wang T. Smart Learning for A Sustainable Society. View
  6. Li L. Machine Learning and Data Mining Annual Volume 2023. View
  7. . Artificial Intelligence Applications Using ChatGPT in Education. View
  8. . Artificial Intelligence Applications Using ChatGPT in Education. View
  9. . Artificial Intelligence Applications Using ChatGPT in Education. View
  10. Yin M, Han B, Ryu S, Hua M. HCI International 2023 – Late Breaking Papers. View
  11. Le-Nguyen H, Tran T. Generative AI in Teaching and Learning. View
  12. P. Stawicki S, J. Papadimos T, Salibi M, Pappada S. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Surgery - An Exploration of Current Trends, Potential Opportunities, and Evolving Threats - Volume 1. View
  13. Damaševičius R, Zailskaitė-Jakštė L. Leveraging ChatGPT and Artificial Intelligence for Effective Customer Engagement. View
  14. Fuhrmann T, Niemetz M. Towards a Hybrid, Flexible and Socially Engaged Higher Education. View
  15. Le-Nguyen H, Tran T. The Role of Generative AI in the Communication Classroom. View
  16. Matheis P, John J. Academic Integrity in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. View
  17. Zhong J, Shu H, Han X. Multimedia Technology and Enhanced Learning. View
  18. Stefan R, Carutasu G, Mocan M. The 17th International Conference Interdisciplinarity in Engineering. View
  19. Barua R, Datta S. Applications, Challenges, and the Future of ChatGPT. View
  20. Anzum F, Asha A, Dey L, Gavrilov A, Iffath F, Ohi A, Pond L, Shopon M, Gavrilova M. Global Perspectives on the Applications of Computer Vision in Cybersecurity. View