Published on in Vol 9 (2023)

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/48291, first published .
Large Language Models in Medical Education: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions

Large Language Models in Medical Education: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions

Large Language Models in Medical Education: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions

Journals

  1. Dhanvijay A, Pinjar M, Dhokane N, Sorte S, Kumari A, Mondal H. Performance of Large Language Models (ChatGPT, Bing Search, and Google Bard) in Solving Case Vignettes in Physiology. Cureus 2023 View
  2. Mannstadt I, Mehta B. Large language models and the future of rheumatology: assessing impact and emerging opportunities. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 2024;36(1):46 View
  3. Scholz O, Krüger N, Betzold E, Bader J, Thul N, Papan C. Antimicrobial stewardship in medical education in Germany: a brief survey and a students’ and educator’s call for change. Antimicrobial Stewardship & Healthcare Epidemiology 2023;3(1) View
  4. Jowsey T, Stokes-Parish J, Singleton R, Todorovic M. Medical education empowered by generative artificial intelligence large language models. Trends in Molecular Medicine 2023;29(12):971 View
  5. Leung T, de Azevedo Cardoso T, Mavragani A, Eysenbach G. Best Practices for Using AI Tools as an Author, Peer Reviewer, or Editor. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e51584 View
  6. Lee H. Using ChatGPT as a Learning Tool in Acupuncture Education: Comparative Study. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e47427 View
  7. Baglivo F, De Angelis L, Casigliani V, Arzilli G, Privitera G, Rizzo C. Exploring the Possible Use of AI Chatbots in Public Health Education: Feasibility Study. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e51421 View
  8. Suárez A, Díaz‐Flores García V, Algar J, Gómez Sánchez M, Llorente de Pedro M, Freire Y. Unveiling the ChatGPT phenomenon: Evaluating the consistency and accuracy of endodontic question answers. International Endodontic Journal 2024;57(1):108 View
  9. Preiksaitis C, Rose C. Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions of Generative Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Scoping Review. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e48785 View
  10. Nashwan A, Jaradat J. Streamlining Systematic Reviews: Harnessing Large Language Models for Quality Assessment and Risk-of-Bias Evaluation. Cureus 2023 View
  11. Heston T, Khun C. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of ChatGPT in Medical Education. SSRN Electronic Journal 2023 View
  12. Biri S, Kumar S, Panigrahi M, Mondal S, Behera J, Mondal H. Assessing the Utilization of Large Language Models in Medical Education: Insights From Undergraduate Medical Students. Cureus 2023 View
  13. Farhat F, Chaudhry B, Nadeem M, Sohail S, Madsen D. Evaluating Large Language Models for the National Premedical Exam in India: Comparative Analysis of GPT-3.5, GPT-4, and Bard. JMIR Medical Education 2024;10:e51523 View
  14. Magalhães Araujo S, Cruz-Correia R. Incorporating ChatGPT in Medical Informatics Education: Mixed Methods Study on Student Perceptions and Experiential Integration Proposals. JMIR Medical Education 2024;10:e51151 View
  15. Choi W. Assessment of the capacity of ChatGPT as a self-learning tool in medical pharmacology: a study using MCQs. BMC Medical Education 2023;23(1) View
  16. Ahn S. A use case of ChatGPT in a flipped medical terminology course. Korean Journal of Medical Education 2023;35(3):303 View
  17. Shimizu I, Kasai H, Shikino K, Araki N, Takahashi Z, Onodera M, Kimura Y, Tsukamoto T, Yamauchi K, Asahina M, Ito S, Kawakami E. Developing Medical Education Curriculum Reform Strategies to Address the Impact of Generative AI: Qualitative Study. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e53466 View
  18. Suárez A, Jiménez J, Llorente de Pedro M, Andreu-Vázquez C, Díaz-Flores García V, Gómez Sánchez M, Freire Y. Beyond the Scalpel: Assessing ChatGPT's potential as an auxiliary intelligent virtual assistant in oral surgery. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal 2024;24:46 View
  19. Jacobs S, Lundy N, Issenberg S, Chandran L. Reimagining Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Undergraduate Medical Education in the Era of Artificial Intelligence. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e50903 View
  20. Jang D, Yun T, Lee C, Kwon Y, Kim C, Nakayama L. GPT-4 can pass the Korean National Licensing Examination for Korean Medicine Doctors. PLOS Digital Health 2023;2(12):e0000416 View
  21. Knopp M, Warm E, Weber D, Kelleher M, Kinnear B, Schumacher D, Santen S, Mendonça E, Turner L. AI-Enabled Medical Education: Threads of Change, Promising Futures, and Risky Realities Across Four Potential Future Worlds. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e50373 View
  22. Tangadulrat P, Sono S, Tangtrakulwanich B. Using ChatGPT for Clinical Practice and Medical Education: Cross-Sectional Survey of Medical Students’ and Physicians’ Perceptions. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e50658 View
  23. Selman-Álvarez R, Figueroa-Fernández Ú, Cruz-Mackenna E, Jarry C, Escalona G, Corvetto M, Varas-Cohen J. Inteligencia artificial en simulación médica: estado actual y proyecciones futuras. Revista Latinoamericana de Simulación Clínica 2023;5(3):117 View
  24. Sardesai N, Russo P, Martin J, Sardesai A. Utilizing generative conversational artificial intelligence to create simulated patient encounters: a pilot study for anaesthesia training. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2024;100(1182):237 View
  25. Morjaria L, Burns L, Bracken K, Levinson A, Ngo Q, Lee M, Sibbald M. Examining the Efficacy of ChatGPT in Marking Short-Answer Assessments in an Undergraduate Medical Program. International Medical Education 2024;3(1):32 View
  26. George Pallivathukal R, Kyaw Soe H, Donald P, Samson R, Hj Ismail A. ChatGPT for Academic Purposes: Survey Among Undergraduate Healthcare Students in Malaysia. Cureus 2024 View
  27. Liu J, Wang C, Liu Z, Gao M, Xu Y, Chen J, Cheng Y. A bibliometric analysis of generative AI in education: current status and development. Asia Pacific Journal of Education 2024;44(1):156 View
  28. Seth I, Lim B, Cevik J, Sofiadellis F, Ross R, Cuomo R, Rozen W. Utilizing GPT-4 and generative artificial intelligence platforms for surgical education: an experimental study on skin ulcers. European Journal of Plastic Surgery 2024;47(1) View
  29. Shorey S, Mattar C, Pereira T, Choolani M. A scoping review of ChatGPT's role in healthcare education and research. Nurse Education Today 2024;135:106121 View
  30. Thaker N, Redjal N, Loaiza-Bonilla A, Penberthy D, Showalter T, Choudhri A, Williamson S, Thaker G, Shah C, Ward M, Thaker M, Arcaro M. Large Language Models Encode Radiation Oncology Domain Knowledge: Performance on the American College of Radiology Standardized Examination. AI in Precision Oncology 2024;1(1):43 View
  31. Shah A, Wahood S, Guermazi D, Brem C, Saliba E. Skin and Syntax: Large Language Models in Dermatopathology. Dermatopathology 2024;11(1):101 View
  32. Zong H, Li J, Wu E, Wu R, Lu J, Shen B. Performance of ChatGPT on Chinese national medical licensing examinations: a five-year examination evaluation study for physicians, pharmacists and nurses. BMC Medical Education 2024;24(1) View
  33. Kapsali M, Livanis E, Tsalikidis C, Oikonomou P, Voultsos P, Tsaroucha A. Ethical Concerns About ChatGPT in Healthcare: A Useful Tool or the Tombstone of Original and Reflective Thinking?. Cureus 2024 View
  34. Gordon M, Daniel M, Ajiboye A, Uraiby H, Xu N, Bartlett R, Hanson J, Haas M, Spadafore M, Grafton-Clarke C, Gasiea R, Michie C, Corral J, Kwan B, Dolmans D, Thammasitboon S. A scoping review of artificial intelligence in medical education: BEME Guide No. 84. Medical Teacher 2024;46(4):446 View
  35. Huber S, Kiili K, Nebel S, Ryan R, Sailer M, Ninaus M. Leveraging the Potential of Large Language Models in Education Through Playful and Game-Based Learning. Educational Psychology Review 2024;36(1) View
  36. Elsheikh A. Enhancing the Efficacy of Assistive Technologies through Localization: A Comprehensive Analysis with a Focus on the Arab Region. Nafath 2024;7(24) View
  37. Chow J, Wong V, Li K. Generative Pre-Trained Transformer-Empowered Healthcare Conversations: Current Trends, Challenges, and Future Directions in Large Language Model-Enabled Medical Chatbots. BioMedInformatics 2024;4(1):837 View
  38. Fostier J, Leemans E, Meeussen L, Wulleman A, Van Doren S, De Coninck D, Toelen J. Dialogues with AI: Comparing ChatGPT, Bard, and Human Participants’ Responses in In-Depth Interviews on Adolescent Health Care. Future 2024;2(1):30 View
  39. Lawson McLean A, Wu Y, Lawson McLean A, Hristidis V. Large language models as decision aids in neuro-oncology: a review of shared decision-making applications. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 2024;150(3) View
  40. Han Z, Battaglia F, Terlecky S. Transforming challenges into opportunities: Leveraging ChatGPT's limitations for active learning and prompt engineering skill. The Innovation Medicine 2024;2(2):100065 View
  41. Raitskaya L, Lambovska M. Prospects for ChatGPT Application in Higher Education: A Scoping Review of International Research. Integration of Education 2023;28(1):10 View
  42. Skryd A, Lawrence K. ChatGPT as a Tool for Medical Education and Clinical Decision-Making on the Wards: Case Study. JMIR Formative Research 2024;8:e51346 View
  43. Gandhi A, Joesph F, Rajagopal V, Aparnavi P, Katkuri S, Dayama S, Satapathy P, Khatib M, Gaidhane S, Zahiruddin Q, Behera A. Performance of ChatGPT on the India Undergraduate Community Medicine Examination: Cross-Sectional Study. JMIR Formative Research 2024;8:e49964 View
  44. Xu X, Chen Y, Miao J. Opportunities, challenges, and future directions of large language models, including ChatGPT in medical education: a systematic scoping review. Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions 2024;21:6 View
  45. Uribe S, Maldupa I, Kavadella A, El Tantawi M, Chaurasia A, Fontana M, Marino R, Innes N, Schwendicke F. Artificial intelligence chatbots and large language models in dental education: Worldwide survey of educators. European Journal of Dental Education 2024 View
  46. Schaye V, Triola M. The generative artificial intelligence revolution: How hospitalists can lead the transformation of medical education. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2024 View
  47. Wu Y, Zheng Y, Feng B, Yang Y, Kang K, Zhao A. Embracing ChatGPT for Medical Education: Exploring Its Impact on Doctors and Medical Students. JMIR Medical Education 2024;10:e52483 View
  48. Spotnitz M, Idnay B, Gordon E, Shyu R, Zhang G, Liu C, Cimino J, Weng C. A Survey of Clinicians' Views of the Utility of Large Language Models. Applied Clinical Informatics 2024;15(02):306 View
  49. Lucas H, Upperman J, Robinson J. A systematic review of large language models and their implications in medical education. Medical Education 2024 View
  50. You S. A Systematic Review of the Impact of ChatGPT on Higher Education. International Journal of Technology-Enhanced Education 2024;3(1):1 View
  51. Hirosawa T, Harada Y, Mizuta K, Sakamoto T, Tokumasu K, Shimizu T. Evaluating ChatGPT-4’s Accuracy in Identifying Final Diagnoses Within Differential Diagnoses Compared With Those of Physicians: Experimental Study for Diagnostic Cases. JMIR Formative Research 2024;8:e59267 View
  52. Jebreen K, Radwan E, Kammoun-Rebai W, Alattar E, Radwan A, Safi W, Radwan W, Alajez M. Perceptions of undergraduate medical students on artificial intelligence in medicine: mixed-methods survey study from Palestine. BMC Medical Education 2024;24(1) View
  53. Bharathi Mohan G, Prasanna Kumar R, Vishal Krishh P, Keerthinathan A, Lavanya G, Meghana M, Sulthana S, Doss S. An analysis of large language models: their impact and potential applications. Knowledge and Information Systems 2024 View
  54. Yang S, Dong Y, Yu Z. ChatGPT in Education. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education 2024;20(1):1 View
  55. Parsa S, Somani S, Dudum R, Jain S, Rodriguez F. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: Is it Ready for Prime Time?. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2024;26(7):263 View
  56. Özbay Y. Evaluation of ChatGPT as a Multiple-Choice Question Generator in Dental Traumatology. Medical Records 2024;6(2):235 View
  57. Albadarin Y, Saqr M, Pope N, Tukiainen M. A systematic literature review of empirical research on ChatGPT in education. Discover Education 2024;3(1) View
  58. Li Z, Li F, Fu Q, Wang X, Liu H, Zhao Y, Ren W. Large language models and medical education: a paradigm shift in educator roles. Smart Learning Environments 2024;11(1) View
  59. Pregowska A, Perkins M. Artificial intelligence in medical education: Typologies and ethical approaches. Ethics & Bioethics 2024;14(1-2):96 View
  60. Susnjak T, McIntosh T. ChatGPT: The End of Online Exam Integrity?. Education Sciences 2024;14(6):656 View
  61. Ali D, Fatemi Y, Boskabadi E, Nikfar M, Ugwuoke J, Ali H. ChatGPT in Teaching and Learning: A Systematic Review. Education Sciences 2024;14(6):643 View
  62. Liu M, Okuhara T, Chang X, Shirabe R, Nishiie Y, Okada H, Kiuchi T. Performance of ChatGPT Across Different Versions in Medical Licensing Examinations Worldwide: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (Preprint). Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024 View
  63. Zhai C, Wibowo S, Li L. The effects of over-reliance on AI dialogue systems on students' cognitive abilities: a systematic review. Smart Learning Environments 2024;11(1) View
  64. Ong J, Chang S, William W, Butte A, Shah N, Chew L, Liu N, Doshi-Velez F, Lu W, Savulescu J, Ting D. Medical Ethics of Large Language Models in Medicine. NEJM AI 2024;1(7) View
  65. Özyurt S. AI-Assisted English Language Learning for Cross-Cultural Medical Education in Multilingual Settings. Experimental and Applied Medical Science 2024 View
  66. DiDonna N, Shetty P, Khan K, Damitz L. Unveiling the Potential of AI in Plastic Surgery Education: A Comparative Study of Leading AI Platforms’ Performance on In-training Examinations. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open 2024;12(6):e5929 View
  67. Xu T, Weng H, Liu F, Yang L, Luo Y, Ding Z, Wang Q. Current Status of ChatGPT Utilization in Medical Education: Potentials, Challenges and Strategies (Preprint). Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024 View
  68. Rossettini G, Rodeghiero L, Corradi F, Cook C, Pillastrini P, Turolla A, Castellini G, Chiappinotto S, Gianola S, Palese A. Comparative accuracy of ChatGPT-4, Microsoft Copilot and Google Gemini in the Italian entrance test for healthcare sciences degrees: a cross-sectional study. BMC Medical Education 2024;24(1) View
  69. Geantă M, Bădescu D, Chirca N, Nechita O, Radu C, Rascu Ș, Rădăvoi D, Sima C, Toma C, Jinga V. The Emerging Role of Large Language Models in Improving Prostate Cancer Literacy. Bioengineering 2024;11(7):654 View
  70. Huisman T, Huisman T. Artificial Intelligence in Newborn Medicine. Newborn 2024;3(2):96 View
  71. Zhui L, Fenghe L, Xuehu W, Qining F, Wei R. Ethical Considerations and Fundamental Principles of Large Language Models in Medical Education: A Viewpoint (Preprint). Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024 View
  72. Lucas M, Yang J, Pomeroy J, Yang C. Reasoning with large language models for medical question answering. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2024 View
  73. Wood D, Moss S. Evaluating the impact of students' generative AI use in educational contexts. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning 2024 View
  74. Haltaufderheide J, Ranisch R. The ethics of ChatGPT in medicine and healthcare: a systematic review on Large Language Models (LLMs). npj Digital Medicine 2024;7(1) View
  75. Jo E, Song S, Kim J, Lim S, Kim J, Cha J, Kim Y, Joo H. Assessing GPT-4’s Performance in Delivering Medical Advice: Comparative Analysis With Human Experts. JMIR Medical Education 2024;10:e51282 View
  76. Johnsson V, Tolsgaard M. Why we should stop writing commentaries about AI. Medical Education 2024 View
  77. Moldt J, Festl-Wietek T, Fuhl W, Zabel S, Claassen M, Wagner S, Nieselt K, Herrmann-Werner A. Assessing AI Awareness and Identifying Essential Competencies: Insights From Key Stakeholders in Integrating AI Into Medical Education. JMIR Medical Education 2024;10:e58355 View
  78. Mistry N, Saeed H, Rafique S, Le T, Obaid H, Adams S. Large Language Models as Tools to Generate Radiology Board-Style Multiple-Choice Questions. Academic Radiology 2024 View
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Books/Policy Documents

  1. Gökoğlu S. Transforming Education With Generative AI. View
  2. Matheis P, John J. Academic Integrity in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. View
  3. Haidar A. Preparing Students for the Future Educational Paradigm. View
  4. Patrício M, Gonçalves B. Information Technology and Systems. View
  5. Jiang N, Duffy V. Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management. View
  6. Zhang F, Yang K, Zhao C, Li H, Dong X, Tian H, Zhou X. Bioinformatics Research and Applications. View