Published on in Vol 5 , No 1 (2019) :Jan-Jun

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Applications and Challenges of Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Integrative Review

Applications and Challenges of Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Integrative Review

Applications and Challenges of Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Integrative Review

Authors of this article:

Kai Siang Chan 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Nabil Zary 1, 2 Author Orcid Image


  1. Tabatabai S. <p>Simulations and Virtual Learning Supporting Clinical Education During the COVID 19 Pandemic</p>. Advances in Medical Education and Practice 2020;Volume 11:513 View
  2. Javaid M, Haleem A, Khan I, Vaishya R, Vaish A. Extending capabilities of artificial intelligence for decision-making and healthcare education. Apollo Medicine 2020;17(1):53 View
  3. Mont M, Krebs V, Backstein D, Browne J, Mason J, Taunton M, Callaghan J. Artificial Intelligence: Influencing Our Lives in Joint Arthroplasty. The Journal of Arthroplasty 2019;34(10):2199 View
  4. Liaw S, Ooi S, Rusli K, Lau T, Tam W, Chua W. Nurse-Physician Communication Team Training in Virtual Reality Versus Live Simulations: Randomized Controlled Trial on Team Communication and Teamwork Attitudes. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(4):e17279 View
  5. Chen X, Xie H, Zou D, Hwang G. Application and theory gaps during the rise of Artificial Intelligence in Education. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence 2020;1:100002 View
  6. Lovis C. Unlocking the Power of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data in Medicine. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(11):e16607 View
  7. Chan K, Lo Z. Wound assessment, imaging and monitoring systems in diabetic foot ulcers: A systematic review. International Wound Journal 2020;17(6):1909 View
  8. Lareyre F, Adam C, Carrier M, Chakfé N, Raffort J. Artificial Intelligence for Education of Vascular Surgeons. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2020;59(6):870 View
  9. Crompton H, Bernacki M, Greene J. Psychological foundations of emerging technologies for teaching and learning in higher education. Current Opinion in Psychology 2020;36:101 View
  10. Duong M, Rauschecker A, Rudie J, Chen P, Cook T, Bryan R, Mohan S. Artificial intelligence for precision education in radiology. The British Journal of Radiology 2019;92(1103):20190389 View
  11. Sapci A, Sapci H. Artificial Intelligence Education and Tools for Medical and Health Informatics Students: Systematic Review. JMIR Medical Education 2020;6(1):e19285 View
  12. Jani K, Jones K, Jones G, Amiel J, Barron B, Elhadad N. Machine learning to extract communication and history‐taking skills in OSCE transcripts. Medical Education 2020;54(12):1159 View
  13. Goh P. Medical Educator Roles of the Future. Medical Science Educator 2020;30(S1):5 View
  14. Guan C, Mou J, Jiang Z. Artificial intelligence innovation in education: A twenty-year data-driven historical analysis. International Journal of Innovation Studies 2020;4(4):134 View
  15. Ilan Y. Second-Generation Digital Health Platforms: Placing the Patient at the Center and Focusing on Clinical Outcomes. Frontiers in Digital Health 2020;2 View
  16. Carin L. On Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning Within Medical Education. Academic Medicine 2020;95(11S):S10 View
  17. Tolsgaard M, Boscardin C, Park Y, Cuddy M, Sebok-Syer S. The role of data science and machine learning in Health Professions Education: practical applications, theoretical contributions, and epistemic beliefs. Advances in Health Sciences Education 2020;25(5):1057 View
  18. Cheng C, Chen C, Fu C, Chaou C, Wu Y, Hsu C, Chang C, Chung I, Hsieh C, Hsieh M, Liao C. Artificial intelligence-based education assists medical students’ interpretation of hip fracture. Insights into Imaging 2020;11(1) View
  19. Baloul M, Yeh V, Mukhtar F, Ramachandran D, Traynor M, Shaikh N, Rivera M, Farley D. Video Commentary & Machine Learning: Tell Me What You See, I Tell You Who You Are. Journal of Surgical Education 2022;79(6):e263 View
  20. Senbekov M, Saliev T, Bukeyeva Z, Almabayeva A, Zhanaliyeva M, Aitenova N, Toishibekov Y, Fakhradiyev I, Fayn J. The Recent Progress and Applications of Digital Technologies in Healthcare: A Review. International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications 2020;2020:1 View
  21. Gallagher M, Breines M, Blaney M. Ontological Transparency, (In)visibility, and Hidden Curricula: Critical Pedagogy Amidst Contentious Edtech. Postdigital Science and Education 2021;3(2):425 View
  22. Anđelić N, Baressi Šegota S, Lorencin I, Mrzljak V, Car Z. Estimation of COVID-19 epidemic curves using genetic programming algorithm. Health Informatics Journal 2021;27(1):146045822097672 View
  23. Karaca O, Çalışkan S, Demir K. Medical artificial intelligence readiness scale for medical students (MAIRS-MS) – development, validity and reliability study. BMC Medical Education 2021;21(1) View
  24. Tsai C, Cheng Y, Tsai Y, Lou S. Impacts of AIOT Implementation Course on the Learning Outcomes of Senior High School Students. Education Sciences 2021;11(2):82 View
  25. Tay Y, Chong L. RE: Perceptions of Canadian radiation oncologists, radiation physicists, radiation therapists and radiation trainees about the impact of artificial intelligence in radiation oncology – National survey. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 2021;52(2):316 View
  26. Shinners L, Aggar C, Grace S, Smith S. Exploring healthcare professionals’ perceptions of artificial intelligence: Validating a questionnaire using the e-Delphi method. DIGITAL HEALTH 2021;7:205520762110034 View
  27. Srinivasan V, Murthy H. Improving reading and comprehension in K-12: Evidence from a large-scale AI technology intervention in India. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence 2021;2:100019 View
  28. Urushibara-Miyachi Y, Kikukawa M, Ikusaka M, Otaki J, Nishigori H. Lists of potential diagnoses that final-year medical students need to consider: a modified Delphi study. BMC Medical Education 2021;21(1) View
  29. Caparrós Galán G, Sendra Portero F. Percepciones de estudiantes de Medicina sobre el impacto de la inteligencia artificial en radiología. Radiología 2022;64(6):516 View
  30. Gorospe-Sarasúa L, Muñoz-Olmedo J, Sendra-Portero F, de Luis-García R. Retos de la formación en radiología en la era de la inteligencia artificial. Radiología 2022;64(1):54 View
  31. Quen M, Mountstephens J, Teh Y, Teo J. Medical image interpretation training with a low‐cost eye tracking and feedback system: A preliminary study. Healthcare Technology Letters 2021;8(4):97 View
  33. Wood E, Ange B, Miller D. Are We Ready to Integrate Artificial Intelligence Literacy into Medical School Curriculum: Students and Faculty Survey. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development 2021;8:238212052110240 View
  34. Fernandez-Luque L, Al Herbish A, Al Shammari R, Argente J, Bin-Abbas B, Deeb A, Dixon D, Zary N, Koledova E, Savage M. Digital Health for Supporting Precision Medicine in Pediatric Endocrine Disorders: Opportunities for Improved Patient Care. Frontiers in Pediatrics 2021;9 View
  35. Lie S, Helle N, Sletteland N, Vikman M, Bonsaksen T. Implementation of Virtual Reality in Health Professions Education: Scoping Review. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e41589 View
  36. Gillissen A, Kochanek T, Zupanic M, Ehlers J. Medical Students’ Perceptions towards Digitization and Artificial Intelligence: A Mixed-Methods Study. Healthcare 2022;10(4):723 View
  37. Barry E, Merkebu J, Varpio L. State-of-the-art literature review methodology: A&nbsp;six-step approach for knowledge synthesis. Perspectives on Medical Education 2022;11(5):1 View
  38. Dadon Z, Butnaru A, Rosenmann D, Alper‐Suissa L, Glikson M, Alpert E. Use of artificial intelligence as a didactic tool to improve ejection fraction assessment in the emergency department: A randomized controlled pilot study. AEM Education and Training 2022;6(2) View
  39. Stanney K, Archer J, Skinner A, Horner C, Hughes C, Brawand N, Martin E, Sanchez S, Moralez L, Fidopiastis C, Perez R. Performance gains from adaptive eXtended Reality training fueled by artificial intelligence. The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology 2022;19(2):195 View
  40. BANSAL M, JINDAL A. Artificial intelligence in healthcare: Should it be included in the medical curriculum? A students’ perspective. The National Medical Journal of India 2022;35:56 View
  41. Liaw S, Tan J, Lim S, Zhou W, Yap J, Ratan R, Ooi S, Wong S, Seah B, Chua W. Artificial intelligence in virtual reality simulation for interprofessional communication training: Mixed method study. Nurse Education Today 2023;122:105718 View
  42. Khamisy-Farah R, Gilbey P, Furstenau L, Sott M, Farah R, Viviani M, Bisogni M, Kong J, Ciliberti R, Bragazzi N. Big Data for Biomedical Education with a Focus on the COVID-19 Era: An Integrative Review of the Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021;18(17):8989 View
  43. Hwang G, Tang K, Tu Y. How artificial intelligence (AI) supports nursing education: profiling the roles, applications, and trends of AI in nursing education research (1993–2020). Interactive Learning Environments 2022:1 View
  44. Paquay M, Goffoy J, Chevalier S, Servotte J, Ghuysen A. Relationships Between Internal Factors, Social Factors and the Sense of Presence in Virtual Reality-Based Simulations. Clinical Simulation in Nursing 2022;62:1 View
  45. Joshi S, Sharma M, Das R, Rosak-Szyrocka J, Żywiołek J, Muduli K, Prasad M. Modeling Conceptual Framework for Implementing Barriers of AI in Public Healthcare for Improving Operational Excellence: Experiences from Developing Countries. Sustainability 2022;14(18):11698 View
  46. Martinho A, Kroesen M, Chorus C. A healthy debate: Exploring the views of medical doctors on the ethics of artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 2021;121:102190 View
  47. Gray K, Slavotinek J, Dimaguila G, Choo D. Artificial Intelligence Education for the Health Workforce: Expert Survey of Approaches and Needs. JMIR Medical Education 2022;8(2):e35223 View
  48. Lu K, Liu H, Zeng L, Wang J, Zhang Z, An J. Applications and prospects of artificial intelligence in covert satellite communication: a review. Science China Information Sciences 2023;66(2) View
  49. Wang J, Singh R, Miselis H, Stapleton S. Technology Literacy in Undergraduate Medical Education: Review and Survey of the US Medical School Innovation and Technology Programs. JMIR Medical Education 2022;8(1):e32183 View
  50. Wei Y, Huang W, Jian C, Hsu C, Hsu C, Lin C, Cheng C, Chen Y, Wei H, Chen K. Semantic segmentation guided detector for segmentation, classification, and lesion mapping of acute ischemic stroke in MRI images. NeuroImage: Clinical 2022;35:103044 View
  51. Choudhury A. Toward an Ecologically Valid Conceptual Framework for the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Settings: Need for Systems Thinking, Accountability, Decision-making, Trust, and Patient Safety Considerations in Safeguarding the Technology and Clinicians. JMIR Human Factors 2022;9(2):e35421 View
  52. Li X, Jiang M, Jong M, Zhang X, Chai C. Understanding Medical Students’ Perceptions of and Behavioral Intentions toward Learning Artificial Intelligence: A Survey Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022;19(14):8733 View
  53. Caparrós Galán G, Sendra Portero F. Medical students’ perceptions of the impact of artificial intelligence in radiology. Radiología (English Edition) 2022;64(6):516 View
  54. Zheng L, Niu J, Zhong L, Gyasi J. The effectiveness of artificial intelligence on learning achievement and learning perception: A meta-analysis. Interactive Learning Environments 2021:1 View
  55. Shi D, Zhou J, Wang D, Wu X. Research Status, Hotspots, and Evolutionary Trends of Intelligent Education from the Perspective of Knowledge Graph. Sustainability 2022;14(17):10934 View
  56. Shankar P. Artificial intelligence in health professions education. Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences 2022;10(2):256 View
  57. Abdellatif H, Al Mushaiqri M, Albalushi H, Al-Zaabi A, Roychoudhury S, Das S. Teaching, Learning and Assessing Anatomy with Artificial Intelligence: The Road to a Better Future. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022;19(21):14209 View
  58. Moldt J, Festl-Wietek T, Madany Mamlouk A, Nieselt K, Fuhl W, Herrmann-Werner A. Chatbots for future docs: exploring medical students’ attitudes and knowledge towards artificial intelligence and medical chatbots. Medical Education Online 2023;28(1) View
  59. Santos G, da Silva H, Figueiredo P, Mesquita C, Melo N, Stefani C, Leite A. The Introduction of Artificial Intelligence in Diagnostic Radiology Curricula: a Text and Opinion Systematic Review. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 2022 View
  60. van de Venter R, Skelton E, Matthew J, Woznitza N, Tarroni G, Hirani S, Kumar A, Malik R, Malamateniou C. Artificial intelligence education for radiographers, an evaluation of a UK postgraduate educational intervention using participatory action research: a pilot study. Insights into Imaging 2023;14(1) View
  61. Jones K, Jani K, Jones G, Nye M, Duff J, Cheng A, Lin Y, Davidson J, Chatfield J, Tofil N, Gaither S, Kessler D. Using natural language processing to compare task‐specific verbal cues in coached versus noncoached cardiac arrest teams during simulated pediatrics resuscitation. AEM Education and Training 2021;5(4) View
  62. Chu S, Hwang G, Tu Y. Artificial intelligence-based robots in education: A systematic review of selected SSCI publications. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence 2022;3:100091 View
  63. Lomis K, Jeffries P, Palatta A, Sage M, Sheikh J, Sheperis C, Whelan A. Artificial Intelligence for Health Professions Educators. NAM Perspectives 2021 View
  64. Wang C, Xie H, Wang S, Yang S, Hu L. Radiological education in the era of artificial intelligence: A review. Medicine 2023;102(1):e32518 View
  65. Swed S, Alibrahim H, Elkalagi N, Nasif M, Rais M, Nashwan A, Aljabali A, Elsayed M, Sawaf B, Albuni M, Battikh E, Elsharif L, Ahmed S, Ahmed E, Othman Z, Alsaleh A, Shoib S. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of artificial intelligence among doctors and medical students in Syria: A cross-sectional online survey. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence 2022;5 View
  67. Owolabi J. ASIC Framework Simplified and Operationalised – An Operational Matrix for Optimising the Use of Technologies and Innovations in Medical Education. Advances in Medical Education and Practice 2022;Volume 13:149 View
  68. Kshetrapal A, McBride M, Mannarino C. Taking the Pulse of the Current State of Simulation. Critical Care Clinics 2023;39(2):373 View
  69. Hossain M, Syeed M, Fatema K, Uddin M. The Perception of Health Professionals in Bangladesh toward the Digitalization of the Health Sector. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022;19(20):13695 View
  70. Karimian G, Petelos E, Evers S. The ethical issues of the application of artificial intelligence in healthcare: a systematic scoping review. AI and Ethics 2022;2(4):539 View
  71. Tsai C, Chung C, Cheng Y, Lou S. Deep learning course development and evaluation of artificial intelligence in vocational senior high schools. Frontiers in Psychology 2022;13 View
  72. Wiljer D, Salhia M, Dolatabadi E, Dhalla A, Gillan C, Al-Mouaswas D, Jackson E, Waldorf J, Mattson J, Clare M, Lalani N, Charow R, Balakumar S, Younus S, Jeyakumar T, Peteanu W, Tavares W. Accelerating the Appropriate Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in Health Care: Protocol for a Multistepped Approach. JMIR Research Protocols 2021;10(10):e30940 View
  73. Gouda H, Hassan F, El-Araby E, Moawed S. Comparison of machine learning models for bluetongue risk prediction: a seroprevalence study on small ruminants. BMC Veterinary Research 2022;18(1) View
  74. Grunhut J, Marques O, Wyatt A. Needs, Challenges, and Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education Curriculum. JMIR Medical Education 2022;8(2):e35587 View
  75. Gorospe-Sarasúa L, Muñoz-Olmedo J, Sendra-Portero F, de Luis-García R. Challenges of Radiology education in the era of artificial intelligence. Radiología (English Edition) 2022;64(1):54 View
  76. Coakley S, Young R, Moore N, England A, O'Mahony A, O'Connor O, Maher M, McEntee M. Radiographers’ knowledge, attitudes and expectations of artificial intelligence in medical imaging. Radiography 2022;28(4):943 View
  77. Charow R, Jeyakumar T, Younus S, Dolatabadi E, Salhia M, Al-Mouaswas D, Anderson M, Balakumar S, Clare M, Dhalla A, Gillan C, Haghzare S, Jackson E, Lalani N, Mattson J, Peteanu W, Tripp T, Waldorf J, Williams S, Tavares W, Wiljer D. Artificial Intelligence Education Programs for Health Care Professionals: Scoping Review. JMIR Medical Education 2021;7(4):e31043 View
  78. Chen X, Zou D, Xie H, Chen G, Lin J, Cheng G. Exploring contributors, collaborations, and research topics in educational technology: A joint analysis of mainstream conferences. Education and Information Technologies 2023;28(2):1323 View
  79. Alzahrani L. Analyzing Students’ Attitudes and Behavior Toward Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Higher Education. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) 2023;11(6):65 View
  80. Tolsgaard M, Pusic M, Sebok-Syer S, Gin B, Svendsen M, Syer M, Brydges R, Cuddy M, Boscardin C. The fundamentals of artificial intelligence in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 156. Medical Teacher 2023:1 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Miller D, Wood E. Human-Machine Shared Contexts. View
  2. Cloude E, Ballelos N, Azevedo R, Castiglioni A, LaRochelle J, Andrews A, Hernandez C. Artificial Intelligence in Education. View
  3. Davids J, Ashrafian H. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. View
  4. Pimienta Rodríguez S, Díaz-López M. Technology-Enabled Innovations in Education. View
  5. Kulkarni P, Gokhale P, Appasaba L, Lakshminarayana K, Tigadi B. ICT Systems and Sustainability. View
  6. Du X, Breazeal C. Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Integrate Technology in K-12 Classrooms. View
  7. Davids J, Ashrafian H. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. View
  8. Ng D, Leung J, Su M, Yim I, Qiao M, Chu S. AI Literacy in K-16 Classrooms. View
  9. Patel V, Dev P. Intelligent Systems in Medicine and Health. View
  10. Arango-Caro S, Walsh L, Wester E, Callis-Duehl K. Technologies in Biomedical and Life Sciences Education. View
  11. Ellaway R. Researching Medical Education. View
  12. Cher P, Lee J, Bello F. Artificial Intelligence in Education. View
  13. Yang X, Yang C. 6GN for Future Wireless Networks. View
  14. Chui K, Lytras M, Visvizi A, Sarirete A. Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Analytics for Smart Healthcare. View
  15. Kolog E, Odoi Devine S, Egala S, Amponsah R, Budu J, Farinloye T. Management and Information Technology in the Digital Era. View
  16. Huang J. Pedagogical Responsiveness in Complex Contexts. View