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JMIR Medical Education

 Technology, innovation and openess in medical education in the information age

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Journal Description

JMIR Medical Education (JME) is a Pubmed-indexed, peer-reviewed journal with focus on technology, innovation and openess in medical education. Another focus is on how to train health professionals in the use of digital tools. We publish original research, reviews, viewpoint and policy papers on innovation and technology in medical education. As an open access journal we have a special interest in open and free tools and digitial learning objects for medical education, and urge authors to make their tools and learning objects freely available (we may also publish them as Multimedia Appendix). We also invite submissions of non-conventional articles (e.g. open medical education material and software resources that are not yet evaluated but free for others to use/implement). 

In our "Students' Corner", we invite students and trainees in the health professions to submit short essays and viewpoints on all aspects of medical education, but in particular suggestions on how to improve medical education, and suggestions for new technologies, applications and approaches (no article processing fees).

A sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), a leading eHealth journal (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175), the scope of JME is broader and includes non-Internet approaches to improve education, training and assessment for medical professionals and allied health professions.

Articles published in JME will be submitted to PubMed and Pubmed Central. JME is open access.

 

Recent Articles:

  • Source: Storyblocks.com; Copyright: Footage Firm; URL: https://www.storyblocks.com/stock-image/medical-student-working-with-pad-on-the-conference-rticuedq_wj6gv70et; License: Licensed by the authors.

    The Perceptions of Medical School Students and Faculty Toward Obesity Medicine Education: Survey and Needs Analysis

    Abstract:

    Background: Recent trends in obesity show that over two-thirds of US adults are considered at least overweight (body mass index, BMI≥25 kg/m2) and of those, about one-third are categorized as obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Physicians can address the health impacts of obesity; yet research has suggested that physicians-in-training frequently fail to recognize obesity, are not properly educated regarding treatment options, and spend relatively little clinic time treating obesity. Medical school is a unique opportunity to address this area of need so that the doctors of tomorrow are prepared to treat obesity appropriately. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine perceptions of where clinical training for medical students on the topic of obesity and its treatment should improve and expand so that we could address the needs identified in a computerized clinical simulation. Methods: We conducted a literature review, as well as a needs analysis with medical school students (N=17) and faculty (N=12). Literature review provided an overview of the current state of the field. Students provided input on their current needs, learning preferences, and opinions. Faculty provided feedback on current training and their perceptions of future needs. Results: Most students were familiar with obesity medicine from various courses where obesity medicine was a subtopic, most frequently in Biochemistry or Nutrition, Endocrinology, and Wellness courses. Student knowledge about basic skills, such as measuring waist circumference, varied widely. About half of the students did not feel knowledgeable about recommending weight loss treatments. Most students did not feel prepared to provide interventions for patients in various categories of overweight/obesity, patients with psychosocial issues, obesity-related comorbidities, or failed weight loss attempts. However, most students did feel that it was their role as health professionals to provide these interventions. Faculty rated the following topics as most important to supplement the curriculum: patient-centered treatment of weight, bringing up the topic of weight, discussing weight and well-being, discussing the relationship between weight and comorbidities, and physician role with overweight or obese patients. Conclusions: A review of the literature as well as surveyed medical students and faculty identified a need for supplementation of the current obesity medicine curriculum in medical schools. Specific needed topics and skills were identified.

  • Using a virtual patient to improve clinical reasoning. Source: Flickr; Copyright: WOCinTech Chat; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wocintechchat/22543243101; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Clinical Reasoning Tool for Virtual Patients: Design-Based Research Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Clinical reasoning is a fundamental process medical students have to learn during and after medical school. Virtual patients (VP) are a technology-enhanced learning method to teach clinical reasoning. However, VP systems do not exploit their full potential concerning the clinical reasoning process; for example, most systems focus on the outcome and less on the process of clinical reasoning. Objectives: Keeping our concept grounded in a former qualitative study, we aimed to design and implement a tool to enhance VPs with activities and feedback, which specifically foster the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills. Methods: We designed the tool by translating elements of a conceptual clinical reasoning learning framework into software requirements. The resulting clinical reasoning tool enables learners to build their patient’s illness script as a concept map when they are working on a VP scenario. The student’s map is compared with the experts’ reasoning at each stage of the VP, which is technically enabled by using Medical Subject Headings, which is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary published by the US National Library of Medicine. The tool is implemented using Web technologies, has an open architecture that enables its integration into various systems through an open application program interface, and is available under a Massachusetts Institute of Technology license. Results: We conducted usability tests following a think-aloud protocol and a pilot field study with maps created by 64 medical students. The results show that learners interact with the tool but create less nodes and connections in the concept map than an expert. Further research and usability tests are required to analyze the reasons. Conclusions: The presented tool is a versatile, systematically developed software component that specifically supports the clinical reasoning skills acquisition. It can be plugged into VP systems or used as stand-alone software in other teaching scenarios. The modular design allows an extension with new feedback mechanisms and learning analytics algorithms.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Gerd Altmann; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/wikipedia-books-encyclopedia-1802614/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled...

    Abstract:

    Background: Web-based resources are commonly used by medical students to supplement curricular material. Three commonly used resources are UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer Inc), digital textbooks, and Wikipedia; there are concerns, however, regarding Wikipedia’s reliability and accuracy. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Wikipedia use on medical students’ short-term knowledge acquisition compared with UpToDate and a digital textbook. Methods: This was a prospective, nonblinded, three-arm randomized trial. The study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2016. Preclerkship medical students were recruited from four Canadian medical schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants through word of mouth, social media, and email. Participants must have been enrolled in their first or second year of medical school at a Canadian medical school. After recruitment, participants were randomized to one of the three Web-based resources: Wikipedia, UpToDate, or a digital textbook. During testing, participants first completed a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) of 25 questions emulating a Canadian medical licensing examination. During the MCQ, participants took notes on topics to research. Then, participants researched topics and took written notes using their assigned resource. They completed the same MCQ again while referencing their notes. Participants also rated the importance and availability of five factors pertinent to Web-based resources. The primary outcome measure was knowledge acquisition as measured by posttest scores. The secondary outcome measures were participants’ perceptions of importance and availability of each resource factor. Results: A total of 116 medical students were recruited. Analysis of variance of the MCQ scores demonstrated a significant interaction between time and group effects (P<.001, ηg2=0.03), with the Wikipedia group scoring higher on the MCQ posttest compared with the textbook group (P<.001, d=0.86). Access to hyperlinks, search functions, and open-source editing were rated significantly higher by the Wikipedia group compared with the textbook group (P<.001). Additionally, the Wikipedia group rated open access editing significantly higher than the UpToDate group; expert editing and references were rated significantly higher by the UpToDate group compared with the Wikipedia group (P<.001). Conclusions: Medical students who used Wikipedia had superior short-term knowledge acquisition compared with those who used a digital textbook. Additionally, the Wikipedia group trended toward better posttest performance compared with the UpToDate group, though this difference was not significant. There were no significant differences between the UpToDate group and the digital textbook group. This study challenges the view that Wikipedia should be discouraged among medical students, instead suggesting a potential role in medical education.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Foundry Co; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/african-american-computer-technology-869673/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Evaluation of Web-Based Continuing Professional Development Courses: Aggregate Mixed-Methods Model

    Abstract:

    Background: Many continuing professional development (CPD) Web-based programs are not explicit about underlying theory and fail to demonstrate impact. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and apply an aggregate mixed-methods evaluation model to describe the paradigm, theoretical framework, and methodological approaches used to evaluate a CPD course in tobacco dependence treatment, the Training Enhancement in Applied Cessation Counseling and Health (TEACH) project. Methods: We evaluated the effectiveness of the 5-week TEACH Web-based Core Course in October 2015. The model of evaluation was derived using a critical realist lens to incorporate a dimension of utilitarian to intuitionist approaches. In addition, we mapped our findings to models described by Fitzpatrick et al, Moore et al, and Kirkpatrick. We used inductive and deductive approaches for thematic analysis of qualitative feedback and dependent samples t tests for quantitative analysis. Results: A total of 59 participants registered for the course, and 48/59 participants (81%) completed all course requirements. Quantitative analysis indicated that TEACH participants reported (1) high ratings (4.55/5, where 5=best/excellent) for instructional content and overall satisfaction of the course (expertise and consumer-oriented approach), (2) a significant increase (P ˂.001) in knowledge and skills (objective-oriented approach), and (3) high motivation (78.90% of participants) to change and sustain practice change (management-oriented approach). Through the intuitionist lens, inductive and deductive qualitative thematic analysis highlighted three central themes focused on (1) knowledge acquisition, (2) recommendations to enhance learning for future participants, and (3) plans for practice change in the formative assessment, and five major themes emerged from the summative assessment: (1) learning objectives, (2) interprofessional collaboration, (3) future topics of relevance, (4) overall modification, and (5) overall satisfaction. Conclusions: In the current aggregate model to evaluate CPD Web-based training, evaluators have been influenced by different paradigms, theoretical lenses, methodological approaches, and data collection methods to address and respond to different needs of stakeholders impacted by the training outcomes.

  • Source: Dreamstime; Copyright: Vetkit; URL: https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-doctor-usa-flag-clipboard-background-image55947958#res8183909; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Systems-Based Training in Graduate Medical Education for Service Learning in the State Legislature in the United States: Pilot Study

    Abstract:

    Background: There is a dearth of advocacy training in graduate medical education in the United States. To address this void, the Legislative Education and Advocacy Development (LEAD) course was developed as an interprofessional experience, partnering a cohort of pediatrics residents, fourth-year medical students, and public health students to be trained in evidence-informed health policy making. Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of a service-based legislative advocacy course. Methods: We conducted a pilot study using a single-arm pre-post study design with 10 participants in the LEAD course. The course’s didactic portion taught learners how to define policy problems, research the background of the situation, brainstorm solutions, determine evaluation criteria, develop communication strategies, and formulate policy recommendations for state legislators. Learners worked in teams to create and present policy briefs addressing issues submitted by participating Illinois State legislators. We compared knowledge and attitudes of learners from pre- and postcourse surveys. We obtained qualitative feedback from legislators and pediatric residency directors. Results: Self-reported understanding of the health care system increased (mean score from 4 to 3.3, P=.01), with answers scored from 1=highly agree to 5=completely disagree. Mean knowledge-based scores improved (6.8/15 to 12.0/15 correct). Pediatric residency program directors and state legislators provided positive feedback about the LEAD course. Conclusions: Promising results were demonstrated for the LEAD approach to incorporate advocacy training into graduate medical education.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: StartupStockPhotos; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/student-typing-keyboard-text-woman-849826/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Selection and Use of Online Learning Resources by First-Year Medical Students: Cross-Sectional Study

    Abstract:

    Background: Medical students have access to a wide range of learning resources, many of which have been specifically developed for or identified and recommended to them by curriculum developers or teaching staff. There is an expectation that students will access and use these resources to support their self-directed learning. However, medical educators lack detailed and reliable data about which of these resources students use to support their learning and how this use relates to key learning events or activities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively document first-year medical student selection and use of online learning resources to support their bioscience learning within a case-based curriculum and assess these data in relation to our expectations of student learning resource requirements and use. Methods: Study data were drawn from 2 sources: a survey of student learning resource selection and use (2013 cohort; n=326) and access logs from the medical school learning platform (2012 cohort; n=337). The paper-based survey, which was distributed to all first-year students, was designed to assess the frequency and types of online learning resources accessed by students and included items about their perceptions of the usefulness, quality, and reliability of various resource types and sources. Of 237 surveys returned, 118 complete responses were analyzed (36.2% response rate). Usage logs from the learning platform for an entire semester were processed to provide estimates of first-year student resource use on an individual and cohort-wide basis according to method of access, resource type, and learning event. Results: According to the survey data, students accessed learning resources via the learning platform several times per week on average, slightly more often than they did for resources from other online sources. Google and Wikipedia were the most frequently used nonuniversity sites, while scholarly information sites (eg, online journals and scholarly databases) were accessed relatively infrequently. Students were more likely to select learning resources based on the recommendation of peers than of teaching staff. The overwhelming majority of the approximately 70,000 resources accessed by students via the learning platform were lecture notes, with each accessed an average of 167 times. By comparison, recommended journal articles and (online) textbook chapters were accessed only 49 and 31 times, respectively. The number and type of learning resources accessed by students through the learning platform was highly variable, with a cluster analysis revealing that a quarter of students accessed very few resources in this way. Conclusions: Medical students have easy access to a wide range of quality learning resources, and while some make good use of the learning resources recommended to them, many ignore most and access the remaining ones infrequently. Learning analytics can provide useful measures of student resource access through university learning platforms but fails to account for resources accessed via external online sources or sharing of resources using social media.

  • Source: The University of Southampton / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://mededu.jmir.org/2017/2/e16/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Log In to Experiential Learning Theory: Supporting Web-Based Faculty Development

    Abstract:

    Background: For an increasingly busy and geographically dispersed faculty, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, developed a range of Web-based faculty development modules, based on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle, to complement the faculty’s face-to-face workshops. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess users’ views and perceptions of the effectiveness of Web-based faculty development modules based on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle. We explored (1) users’ satisfaction with the modules, (2) whether Kolb’s design framework supported users’ learning, and (3) whether the design principle impacts their work as educators. Methods: We gathered data from users over a 3-year period using evaluation surveys built into each of the seven modules. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results: Out of the 409 module users, 283 completed the survey (69.1% response rate). Over 80% of the users reported being satisfied or very satisfied with seven individual aspects of the modules. The findings suggest a strong synergy between the design features that users rated most highly and the key stages of Kolb’s learning cycle. The use of simulations and videos to give the users an initial experience as well as the opportunity to “Have a go” and receive feedback in a safe environment were both considered particularly useful. In addition to providing an opportunity for reflection, many participants considered that the modules would enhance their roles as educators through: increasing their knowledge on various education topics and the required standards for medical training, and improving their skills in teaching and assessing students through practice and feedback and ultimately increasing their confidence. Conclusions: Kolb’s theory-based design principle used for Web-based faculty development can support faculty to improve their skills and has impact on their role as educators. Grounding Web-based training in learning theory offers an effective and flexible approach for faculty development.

  • American College of Lifestyle Medicine homepage (montage). Source: American College of Lifestyle Medicine / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://mededu.jmir.org/2017/2/e14/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Web-Based Lifestyle Medicine Curriculum: Facilitating Education About Lifestyle Medicine, Behavioral Change, and Health Care Outcomes

    Abstract:

    Background: Lifestyle medicine is the science and application of healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of disease, and has gained significant momentum as a specialty in recent years. College is a critical time for maintenance and acquisition of healthy habits. Longer-term, more intensive web-based and in-person lifestyle medicine interventions can have a positive effect. Students who are exposed to components of lifestyle medicine in their education have improvements in their health behaviors. A semester-long undergraduate course focused on lifestyle medicine can be a useful intervention to help adopt and sustain healthy habits. Objective: To describe a novel, evidence based curriculum for a course teaching the concepts of Lifestyle Medicine based on a web-based course offered at the Harvard Extension School. Methods: The course was delivered in a web-based format. The Lifestyle Medicine course used evidence based principles to guide students toward a “coach approach” to behavior change, increasing their self-efficacy regarding various lifestyle-related preventive behaviors. Students are made to understand the cultural trends and national guidelines that have shaped lifestyle medicine recommendations relating to behaviors. They are encouraged to engage in behavior change. Course topics include physical activity, nutrition, addiction, sleep, stress, and lifestyle coaching and counseling. The course addressed all of the American College of Preventive Medicine/American College of Lifestyle Medicine competencies save for the competency of office systems and technologies to support lifestyle medicine counseling. Results: The course was well-received, earning a ranking of 4.9/5 at the school. Conclusions: A novel, semester-long course on Lifestyle Medicine at the Harvard Extension School is described. Student evaluations suggest the course was well-received. Further research is needed to evaluate whether such a course empowers students to adopt behavior changes.

  • Laryngoscope blades for intubation. Source: Wikimedia Commons; Copyright: Sasata; URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macintosh_Blades.jpg; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Mobile Apps for Teaching Intubation: Scoping Review and Critical Analysis in eLearning

    Abstract:

    Background: Airway management is a core skill in anesthesia ensuring adequate oxygenation and delivery of inhalational agents for the patient. Objective: The goals of this study were to critically evaluate the quality of airway management apps and target revised Bloom's Taxonomy cognitive levels. Methods: An electronic search using the keywords “airway” and “airway management” was conducted in May 2015 across the App Store, Google Play, BlackBerry World, and Windows Store. Apps were included in the study if their content was related to airway management. App content and characteristics were extracted into a standard form and evaluated. Results: A total of 65 apps met the inclusion criteria, and 73% (47/65) of apps were developed by companies or industry. Anesthesiology trainees were the target audience in only 20% (13/65) of apps. Bag mask ventilation and laryngeal mask airways were covered in only 20% (13/65) of apps. Only 2 apps were supported in the scientific literature. For Bloom’s Taxonomy, 37% (24/65) of apps targeted knowledge, 5% (3/65) comprehension, 22% (14/65) application, 28% (18/65) analysis, 9% (6/65) evaluation, and 0% synthesis. Multivariate analysis identified cost of apps, size of apps (MB), and apps targeting trainees and paramedics to be associated with higher levels of cognitive processing of revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Conclusions: Apps developed for teaching intubation target lower levels of cognitive processing and are largely not validated by research. Cost, app size, and targeted user are associated with higher cognitive levels. Trainees and all users should be aware of the paucity of the published evidence behind the efficacy of some of these apps.

  • A phone accessing YouTube. Source: Foter; Copyright: FootMassagez; URL: http://foter.com/ff/photo/33541725814/156ff17165/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Attitudes of Health Professional Educators Toward the Use of Social Media as a Teaching Tool: Global Cross-Sectional Study

    Abstract:

    Background: The use of social media in health education has witnessed a revolution within the past decade. Students have already adopted social media informally to share information and supplement their lecture-based learning. Although studies show comparable efficacy and improved engagement when social media is used as a teaching tool, broad-based adoption has been slow and the data on barriers to uptake have not been well documented. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of health educators toward social media use in education, examine differences between faculty members who do and do not use social media in teaching practice, and determine contributing factors for an increase in the uptake of social media. Methods: A cross-sectional Web-based survey was disseminated to the faculty of health professional education departments at 8 global institutions. Respondents were categorized based on the frequency of social media use in teaching as “users” and “nonusers.” Users sometimes, often, or always used social media, whereas nonusers never or rarely used social media. Results: A total of 270 health educators (52.9%, n=143 users and 47.0%, n=127 nonusers) were included in the survey. Users and nonusers demonstrated significant differences on perceived barriers and potential benefits to the use of social media. Users were more motivated by learner satisfaction and deterred by lack of technology compatibility, whereas nonusers reported the need for departmental and skill development support. Both shared concerns of professionalism and lack of evidence showing enhanced learning. Conclusions: The majority of educators are open-minded to incorporating social media into their teaching practice. However, both users and nonusers have unique perceived challenges and needs, and engaging them to adapt social media into their educational practice will require previously unreported approaches. Identification of these differences and areas of overlap presents opportunities to determine a strategy to increase adoption.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: StartupStockPhotos; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/startup-business-businessman-594127/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities

    Abstract:

    Background: Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. Objective: This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. Methods: We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. Results: We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). Conclusions: KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT’s multifaceted theories and processes in an engaging, interactive way. This learning should empower clinicians to contextualize and apply KT strategies within their own care settings.

  • Students in China. Source: Flickr; Copyright: International Monetary Fund; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/imfphoto/13368035434/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Developing a Curriculum for Information and Communications Technology Use in Global Health Research and Training: A Qualitative Study Among Chinese Health...

    Abstract:

    Background: Rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) during the last decade has transformed biomedical and population-based research and has become an essential part of many types of research and educational programs. However, access to these ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research are often lacking in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) institutions. Objective: The aim of our study was to assess the practical issues (ie, perceptions and learning needs) of ICT use among health sciences graduate students at 6 major medical universities of southern China. Methods: Ten focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted from December 2015 to March 2016, involving 74 health sciences graduate students studying at 6 major medical universities in southern China. The sampling method was opportunistic, accounting for the graduate program enrolled and the academic year. All FGDs were audio recorded and thematic content analysis was performed. Results: Researchers had different views and arguments about the use of ICT which are summarized under six themes: (1) ICT use in routine research, (2) ICT-related training experiences, (3) understanding about the pros and cons of Web-based training, (4) attitudes toward the design of ICT training curriculum, (5) potential challenges to promoting ICT courses, and (6) related marketing strategies for ICT training curriculum. Many graduate students used ICT on a daily basis in their research to stay up-to-date on current development in their area of research or study or practice. The participants were very willing to participate in ICT courses that were relevant to their academic majors and would count credits. Suggestion for an ICT curriculum included (1) both organized training course or short lecture series, depending on the background and specialty of the students, (2) a mixture of lecture and Web-based activities, and (3) inclusion of topics that are career focused. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that a need exists for a specialized curriculum related to ICT use in health research for health sciences graduate students in China. The results have important implications for the design and implementation of ICT-related educational program in China or other developing countries.

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  • Medical students views

    Date Submitted: Nov 12, 2017

    Open Peer Review Period: Nov 13, 2017 - Jan 8, 2018

    Background: The importance of assessment in the educational process is well emphasized in medical education. The system of continuous assessment (CA) used in the College of medicine, KKU can be descri...

    Background: The importance of assessment in the educational process is well emphasized in medical education. The system of continuous assessment (CA) used in the College of medicine, KKU can be described as frequent summative assessments in each course since there was no regular feedback. The CA adopted carries 50% of the total marks. Achievement of students in CA is critical to their pass or failure of any course. Excessive use of summative assessment was identified as problematic by some research work. But, at the same time a single terminal summative assessment is not recommended. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between each of gender, feedback and students' perception of learning with performance in CA. Objective: To get the views of medical students about their performance in continuous assessment and the factors affecting the continuous assessment. Methods: The target population of this study was the 4th, 5th and 6th year students of the college of medicine, KKU. Non-probability convenience sampling was used aiming at 25% - 30% of the total. A correlational design was adopted. A structured self-administered questionnaire was developed. This was based on four constructs: performance on CA: 3 items, feedback: 6 items, students' perception of learning: 12 items and gender. A 5-point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree to the stated statements in the instrument. The questionnaire was validated before use. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was computed using SPSS. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: This is a cross sectional study . The total number of respondents was 128 with 58% of them males and 42% females. The computed r for the perception of learning with performance in CA was .741 and for feedback with performance in CA was .766. This clearly indicated a significant positive correlation between them. Gender had no significant correlation with performance in CA. Although profound evidence does exist on the positive effect of CA on academic performance and motivation of students, this effect seems to be dependent on how the assessment system is used. In one experimental study, it was found that CA had positive effect on students' academic performance, learning and satisfaction compared to summative assessment. On the other hand, when continuous assessment was done in form of frequent summative assessment, the positive effect was lost and in fact a negative effect was evident Conclusions: The respondents viewed their perception of learning and feedback strongly and positively correlated with their performance in CA, while gender had no significant correlation.

  • Consensus on quality indicators of postgraduate medical e-learning: a Delphi study

    Date Submitted: Nov 8, 2017

    Open Peer Review Period: Nov 8, 2017 - Jan 3, 2018

    Background: The progressive use of e-learning in postgraduate medical education calls for proper quality indicators. Currently many evaluation tools exist. However, these are diversely used and their...

    Background: The progressive use of e-learning in postgraduate medical education calls for proper quality indicators. Currently many evaluation tools exist. However, these are diversely used and their empirical foundation is often lacking. Objective: We aimed to identify an empirically founded set of quality indicators to set the bar for “good enough” e-learning. Methods: We performed a Delphi procedure with a group of 13 international education experts and 10 experienced users of e-learning. The questionnaire started with 57 items. These items were the result of a previous literature review and focus group study performed with experts and users. We used a Rate of Agreement (RoA) of less than two thirds resulted in its rejection. Results: In the first round, 37 items of the 57 were accepted as important, there was no consensus on 20, and 15 new items were added by the participants. In the second round, we added the comments of the first round to the items on which there was no consensus, and added the 15 new items. After this round, a total of 72 items were questioned and of these, 37 items were accepted and 35 were rejected due to lack of consensus. Conclusions: This study provides a list of 37 items which can form the basis of an evaluation tool to evaluate postgraduate medical e-learning. This is the first time that quality indicators for postgraduate medical e-learning have been defined and validated. The next step is to create and validate an e-learning evaluation tool from these items.

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