JMIR Publications

JMIR Medical Education

 Technology, innovation and openess in medical education in the information age

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Journal Description

JMIR Medical Education (JME) is a Pubmed-indexed, peer-reviewed journal with focus on technology, innovation and openess in medical education. Another focus is on how to train health professionals in the use of digital tools. We publish original research, reviews, viewpoint and policy papers on innovation and technology in medical education. As an open access journal we have a special interest in open and free tools and digitial learning objects for medical education, and urge authors to make their tools and learning objects freely available (we may also publish them as Multimedia Appendix). We also invite submissions of non-conventional articles (e.g. open medical education material and software resources that are not yet evaluated but free for others to use/implement). 

In our "Students' Corner", we invite students and trainees in the health professions to submit short essays and viewpoints on all aspects of medical education, but in particular suggestions on how to improve medical education, and suggestions for new technologies, applications and approaches (no article processing fees).

A sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), a leading eHealth journal (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175), the scope of JME is broader and includes non-Internet approaches to improve education, training and assessment for medical professionals and allied health professions.

Articles published in JME will be submitted to PubMed and Pubmed Central. JME is open access.

 

Recent Articles:

  • A phone accessing YouTube. Source: Foter; Copyright: FootMassagez; URL: http://foter.com/ff/photo/33541725814/156ff17165/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Attitudes of Health Professional Educators Toward the Use of Social Media as a Teaching Tool: Global Cross-Sectional Study

    Abstract:

    Background: The use of social media in health education has witnessed a revolution within the past decade. Students have already adopted social media informally to share information and supplement their lecture-based learning. Although studies show comparable efficacy and improved engagement when social media is used as a teaching tool, broad-based adoption has been slow and the data on barriers to uptake have not been well documented. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of health educators toward social media use in education, examine differences between faculty members who do and do not use social media in teaching practice, and determine contributing factors for an increase in the uptake of social media. Methods: A cross-sectional Web-based survey was disseminated to the faculty of health professional education departments at 8 global institutions. Respondents were categorized based on the frequency of social media use in teaching as “users” and “nonusers.” Users sometimes, often, or always used social media, whereas nonusers never or rarely used social media. Results: A total of 270 health educators (52.9%, n=143 users and 47.0%, n=127 nonusers) were included in the survey. Users and nonusers demonstrated significant differences on perceived barriers and potential benefits to the use of social media. Users were more motivated by learner satisfaction and deterred by lack of technology compatibility, whereas nonusers reported the need for departmental and skill development support. Both shared concerns of professionalism and lack of evidence showing enhanced learning. Conclusions: The majority of educators are open-minded to incorporating social media into their teaching practice. However, both users and nonusers have unique perceived challenges and needs, and engaging them to adapt social media into their educational practice will require previously unreported approaches. Identification of these differences and areas of overlap presents opportunities to determine a strategy to increase adoption.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: StartupStockPhotos; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/startup-business-businessman-594127/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities

    Abstract:

    Background: Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. Objective: This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. Methods: We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. Results: We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). Conclusions: KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT’s multifaceted theories and processes in an engaging, interactive way. This learning should empower clinicians to contextualize and apply KT strategies within their own care settings.

  • Students in China. Source: Flickr; Copyright: International Monetary Fund; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/imfphoto/13368035434/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Developing a Curriculum for Information and Communications Technology Use in Global Health Research and Training: A Qualitative Study Among Chinese Health...

    Abstract:

    Background: Rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) during the last decade has transformed biomedical and population-based research and has become an essential part of many types of research and educational programs. However, access to these ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research are often lacking in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) institutions. Objective: The aim of our study was to assess the practical issues (ie, perceptions and learning needs) of ICT use among health sciences graduate students at 6 major medical universities of southern China. Methods: Ten focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted from December 2015 to March 2016, involving 74 health sciences graduate students studying at 6 major medical universities in southern China. The sampling method was opportunistic, accounting for the graduate program enrolled and the academic year. All FGDs were audio recorded and thematic content analysis was performed. Results: Researchers had different views and arguments about the use of ICT which are summarized under six themes: (1) ICT use in routine research, (2) ICT-related training experiences, (3) understanding about the pros and cons of Web-based training, (4) attitudes toward the design of ICT training curriculum, (5) potential challenges to promoting ICT courses, and (6) related marketing strategies for ICT training curriculum. Many graduate students used ICT on a daily basis in their research to stay up-to-date on current development in their area of research or study or practice. The participants were very willing to participate in ICT courses that were relevant to their academic majors and would count credits. Suggestion for an ICT curriculum included (1) both organized training course or short lecture series, depending on the background and specialty of the students, (2) a mixture of lecture and Web-based activities, and (3) inclusion of topics that are career focused. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that a need exists for a specialized curriculum related to ICT use in health research for health sciences graduate students in China. The results have important implications for the design and implementation of ICT-related educational program in China or other developing countries.

  • Physician looking at E-learning Course Home Page. Source: Placeit/JMIR Publications; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://mededu.jmir.org/2017/1/e10/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Development and Assessment of an E-learning Course on Pediatric Cardiology Basics

    Abstract:

    Background: Early detection of congenital heart disease is a worldwide problem. This is more critical in developing countries, where shortage of professional specialists and structural health care problems are a constant. E-learning has the potential to improve capacity, by overcoming distance barriers and by its ability to adapt to the reduced time of health professionals. Objective: The study aimed to develop an e-learning pediatric cardiology basics course and evaluate its pedagogical impact and user satisfaction. Methods: The sample consisted of 62 health professionals, including doctors, nurses, and medical students, from 20 hospitals linked via a telemedicine network in Northeast Brazil. The course was developed using Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment; Moodle Pty Ltd, Perth, Australia) and contents adapted from a book on this topic. Pedagogical impact evaluation used a pre and posttest approach. User satisfaction was evaluated using Wang’s questionnaire. Results: Pedagogical impact results revealed differences in knowledge assessment before and after the course (Z=−4.788; P<.001). Questionnaire results indicated high satisfaction values (Mean=87%; SD=12%; minimum=67%; maximum=100%). Course adherence was high (79%); however, the withdrawal exhibited a value of 39%, with the highest rate in the early chapters. Knowledge gain revealed significant differences according to the profession (X22=8.6; P=.01) and specialty (X22=8.4; P=.04). Time dedication to the course was significantly different between specialties (X22=8.2; P=.04). Conclusions: The main contributions of this study are the creation of an asynchronous e-learning course on Moodle and the evaluation of its impact, confirming that e-learning is a viable tool to improve training in neonatal congenital heart diseases.

  • Source: Freepik.com; Copyright: phduet; URL: http://www.freepik.com/free-photo/close-up-of-hands-using-a-smartphone_962621.htm; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Erosion of Digital Professionalism During Medical Students’ Core Clinical Clerkships

    Abstract:

    Background: The increased use of social media, cloud computing, and mobile devices has led to the emergence of guidelines and novel teaching efforts to guide students toward the appropriate use of technology. Despite this, violations of professional conduct are common. Objective: We sought to explore professional behaviors specific to appropriate use of technology by looking at changes in third-year medical students’ attitudes and behaviors at the beginning and conclusion of their clinical clerkships. Methods: After formal teaching about digital professionalism, we administered a survey to medical students that described 35 technology-related behaviors and queried students about professionalism of the behavior (on a 5-point Likert scale), observation of others engaging in the behavior (yes or no), as well as personal participation in the behavior (yes or no). Students were resurveyed at the end of the academic year. Results: Over the year, perceptions of what is considered acceptable behavior regarding privacy, data security, communications, and social media boundaries changed, despite formal teaching sessions to reinforce professional behavior. Furthermore, medical students who observed unprofessional behaviors were more likely to participate in such behaviors. Conclusions: Although technology is a useful tool to enhance teaching and learning, our results reflect an erosion of professionalism related to information security that occurred despite medical school and hospital-based teaching sessions to promote digital professionalism. True alteration of trainee behavior will require a cultural shift that includes continual education, better role models, and frequent reminders for faculty, house staff, students, and staff.

  • Simulator media display. Selecting a media option from the media drop-down displays a pop-up with the relevant image, lab results, or video. Source: Figure 2 from http://mededu.jmir.org/2017/1/e8; Copyright: the authors; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Simulation Training: Evaluating the Instructor’s Contribution to a Wizard of Oz Simulator in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Training

    Abstract:

    Background: Workplaces today demand graduates who are prepared with field-specific knowledge, advanced social skills, problem-solving skills, and integration capabilities. Meeting these goals with didactic learning (DL) is becoming increasingly difficult. Enhanced training methods that would better prepare tomorrow’s graduates must be more engaging and game-like, such as feedback based e-learning or simulation-based training, while saving time. Empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of advanced learning methods is lacking. Objective quantitative research comparing advanced training methods with DL is sparse. Objectives: This quantitative study assessed the effectiveness of a computerized interactive simulator coupled with an instructor who monitored students’ progress and provided Web-based immediate feedback. Methods: A low-cost, globally accessible, telemedicine simulator, developed at the Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel—was used. A previous study in the field of interventional cardiology, evaluating the efficacy of the simulator to enhanced learning via knowledge exams, presented promising results of average scores varying from 94% after training and 54% before training (n=20) with P<.001. Two independent experiments involving obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) physicians and senior ultrasound sonographers, with 32 subjects, were conducted using a new interactive concept of the WOZ (Wizard of OZ) simulator platform. The contribution of an instructor to learning outcomes was evaluated by comparing students’ knowledge before and after each interactive instructor-led session as well as after fully automated e-learning in the field of Ob-Gyn. Results from objective knowledge tests were analyzed using hypothesis testing and model fitting. Results: A significant advantage (P=.01) was found in favor of the WOZ training approach. Content type and training audience were not significant. Conclusions: This study evaluated the contribution of an integrated teaching environment using a computerized interactive simulator, with an instructor providing immediate Web-based immediate feedback to trainees. Involvement of an instructor in the simulation-based training process provided better learning outcomes that varied training content and trainee populations did not affect the overall learning gains.

  • Image of virtual patient and physician. Source: JMIR Medical Education; Copyright: Ron Goldman; URL: http://mededu.jmir.org/2017/1/e7/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Simulated Conversations With Virtual Humans to Improve Patient-Provider Communication and Reduce Unnecessary Prescriptions for Antibiotics: A Repeated...

    Abstract:

    Background: Despite clear evidence that antibiotics do not cure viral infections, the problem of unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in ambulatory care persists, and in some cases, prescribing patterns have increased. The overuse of antibiotics for treating viral infections has created numerous economic and clinical consequences including increased medical costs due to unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic resistance, disruption of gut bacteria, and obesity. Recent research has underscored the importance of collaborative patient-provider communication as a means to reduce the high rates of unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics. However, most patients and providers do not feel prepared to engage in such challenging conversations. Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the ability of a brief 15-min simulated role-play conversation with virtual humans to serve as a preliminary step to help health care providers and patients practice, and learn how to engage in effective conversations about antibiotics overuse. Methods: A total of 69 participants (35 providers and 34 patients) completed the simulation once in one sitting. A pre-post repeated measures design was used to assess changes in patients’ and providers’ self-reported communication behaviors, activation, and preparedness, intention, and confidence to effectively communicate in the patient-provider encounter. Changes in patients’ knowledge and beliefs regarding antibiotic use were also evaluated. Results: Patients experienced a short-term positive improvement in beliefs about appropriate antibiotic use for infection (F1,30=14.10, P=.001). Knowledge scores regarding the correct uses of antibiotics improved immediately postsimulation, but decreased at the 1-month follow-up (F1,30=31.16, P<.001). There was no change in patient activation and shared decision-making (SDM) scores in the total sample of patients (P>.10) Patients with lower levels of activation exhibited positive, short-term benefits in increased intent and confidence to discuss their needs and ask questions in the clinic visit, positive attitudes regarding participation in SDM with their provider, and accurate beliefs about the use of antibiotics (P<.10). The results also suggest small immediate gains in providers’ attitudes about SDM (mean change 0.20; F1,33= 8.03, P=.01). Conclusions: This pilot study provided preliminary evidence on the efficacy of the use of simulated conversations with virtual humans as a tool to improve patient-provider communication (ie, through increasing patient confidence to actively participate in the visit and physician attitudes about SDM) for engaging in conversations about antibiotic use. Future research should explore if repeated opportunities to use the 15-min simulation as well as providing users with several different conversations to practice with would result in sustained improvements in antibiotics beliefs and knowledge and communication behaviors over time. The results of this pilot study offered several opportunities to improve on the simulation in order to bolster communication skills and knowledge retention.

  • Hemophilia. Source: www.flickr.com; Copyright: Michael Schultz via flickr; URL: https://goo.gl/B7YZXF; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    The Coags Uncomplicated App: Fulfilling Educational Gaps Around Diagnosis and Laboratory Testing of Coagulation Disorders

    Abstract:

    Background: Patients with coagulation disorders may present to a variety of physician specialties; however, accurate and efficient diagnosis can be challenging for physicians not specialized in hematology, due to identified gaps in knowledge around appropriate laboratory assays and interpretation of test results. Coags Uncomplicated was developed to fill this unmet educational need by increasing practical knowledge of coagulation disorders among nonexpert physicians and other health care professionals (HCPs) in a point-of-care (POC) setting. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess patterns of use of the mobile app Coags Uncomplicated, a tool designed to support education regarding accurate and efficient diagnosis of bleeding disorders. Methods: App metrics were obtained by tracking registered user data. Additionally, a survey was distributed to registered users, to assess circumstances and frequency of use. Results: The most common specialties of 7596 registered US users were hematology-oncology (n=1534, 20.19%), hematology (n=1014, 13.35%), and emergency medicine (n=1222, 16.09%); most identified as physicians (n=4082, 53.74%). Specialties accounting for the greatest numbers of screen views were hematology-oncology (99,390 views), hematology (47,808 views), emergency medicine (23,121 views), and internal medicine (22,586 views). The most common diagnostic endpoints reached were disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; 2713 times), liver disease effect (2108 times), and vitamin K deficiency (1584 times). Of 3424 users asked to take the survey, 262 responded (7.65%); most were physicians in direct clinical care (71%) and specialized in hematology-oncology (39%) or emergency medicine (21%). Most frequent use was reported by hematologists (69%, ≥6 times) and hematologists-oncologists (38%, ≥6 times). Most physicians (89.2%) reported using the app for patient-case-related education around appropriate use of laboratory tests in diagnostic evaluation. Physicians rated Lab Value Analyzer (mean 4.43) and Lab Test Algorithm (mean 4.46) tools highly on a 5-point “how helpful” scale and were likely to recommend the app to colleagues. Conclusions: App use among physicians and other HCPs is consistent with value as a POC educational tool, which may facilitate differential diagnoses and appropriate early consultation with hematologists.

  • Man holds digital tablet in his hands. Source: Pexels; URL: https://www.pexels.com/photo/man-holds-digital-tablet-in-his-hands-6363/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Continuing Professional Development via Social Media or Conference Attendance: A Cost Analysis

    Abstract:

    Background: Professional development is essential in the health disciplines. Knowing the cost and value of educational approaches informs decisions and choices about learning and teaching practices. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to conduct a cost analysis of participation in continuing professional development via social media compared with live conference attendance. Methods: Clinicians interested in musculoskeletal care were invited to participate in the study activities. Quantitative data were obtained from an anonymous electronic questionnaire. Results: Of the 272 individuals invited to contribute data to this study, 150 clinicians predominantly from Australia, United States, United Kingdom, India, and Malaysia completed the outcome measures. Half of the respondents (78/150, 52.0%) believed that they would learn more with the live conference format. The median perceived participation costs for the live conference format was Aus $1596 (interquartile range, IQR 172.50-2852.00). The perceived cost of participation for equivalent content delivered via social media was Aus $15 (IQR 0.00-58.50). The majority of the clinicians (114/146, 78.1%, missing data n=4) indicated that they would pay for a subscription-based service, delivered by social media, to the median value of Aus $59.50. Conclusions: Social media platforms are evolving into an acceptable and financially sustainable medium for the continued professional development of health professionals. When factoring in the reduced costs of participation and the reduced loss of employable hours from the perspective of the health service, professional development via social media has unique strengths that challenge the traditional live conference delivery format.

  • Image source: Copyright stocksnap.io. https://goo.gl/dPhvgt. Licensed under Creative Commons CC0 license. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.

    When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method

    Abstract:

    Background: The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Objective: Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. Methods: A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Results: Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant (R=4.86% [N=234,196] and R=3.04% [n=45,394], respectively). In part 2 (qualitative results), 22 items were deemed representative, while 1 item was not representative. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative results), the content validity of 21 items was confirmed, and the 2 nonrelevant items were excluded. A fully validated version was generated (IAM-v2014). Conclusions: This study produced a content validated IAM questionnaire that is used by clinicians and information providers to assess the clinical information delivered in continuing education programs.

  • ReferaSmoker.org with Virtual Patient. Image sourced and copyrighted by authors.

    Virtual Patient Technology: Engaging Primary Care in Quality Improvement Innovations

    Abstract:

    Background: Engaging health care staff in new quality improvement programs is challenging. Objective: We developed 2 virtual patient (VP) avatars in the context of a clinic-level quality improvement program. We sought to determine differences in preferences for VPs and the perceived influence of interacting with the VP on clinical staff engagement with the quality improvement program. Methods: Using a participatory design approach, we developed an older male smoker VP and a younger female smoker VP. The older male smoker was described as a patient with cardiovascular disease and was ethnically ambiguous. The female patient was younger and was worried about the impact of smoking on her pregnancy. Clinical staff were allowed to choose the VP they preferred, and the more they engaged with the VP, the more likely the VP was to quit smoking and become healthier. We deployed the VP within the context of a quality improvement program designed to encourage clinical staff to refer their patients who smoke to a patient-centered Web-assisted tobacco intervention. To evaluate the VPs, we used quantitative analyses using multivariate models of provider and practice characteristics and VP characteristic preference and analyses of a brief survey of positive deviants (clinical staff in practices with high rates of encouraging patients to use the quit smoking innovation). Results: A total of 146 clinical staff from 76 primary care practices interacted with the VPs. Clinic staff included medical providers (35/146, 24.0%), nurse professionals (19/146, 13.0%), primary care technicians (5/146, 3.4%), managerial staff (67/146, 45.9%), and receptionists (20/146, 13.7%). Medical staff were mostly male, and other roles were mostly female. Medical providers (OR 0.031; CI 0.003-0.281; P=.002) and younger staff (OR 0.411; CI 0.177-0.952; P=.038) were less likely to choose the younger, female VP when controlling for all other characteristics. VP preference did not influence online patient referrals by staff. In high-performing practices that referred 20 or more smokers to the ePortal (13/76), the majority of clinic staff were motivated by or liked the virtual patient (20/26, 77%). Conclusions: Medical providers are more likely motivated by VPs that are similar to their patient population, while nurses and other staff may prefer avatars that are more similar to them.

  • As Seen on Social Media: Residents at Happy Hour. Photo by Aman Chauhan; used with permission.

    Pediatric Residents’ Perceptions of Potential Professionalism Violations on Social Media: A US National Survey

    Abstract:

    Background: The ubiquitous use of social media by physicians poses professionalism challenges. Regulatory bodies have disseminated guidelines related to physicians’ use of social media. Objective: This study had 2 objectives: (1) to understand what pediatric residents view as appropriate social media postings, and (2) to recognize the degree to which these residents are exposed to postings that violate social media professionalism guidelines. Methods: We distributed an electronic survey to pediatric residents across the United States. The survey consisted of 5 postings from a hypothetical resident’s personal Facebook page. The vignettes highlighted common scenarios that challenge published social media professionalism guidelines. We asked 2 questions for each vignette regarding (1) the resident’s opinion of the posting’s appropriateness, and (2) their frequency of viewing similar posts. We also elicited demographic data (age, sex, postgraduate year level), frequency of Facebook use, awareness of their institutional policies, and prior social media training. Results: Of 1628 respondents, 1498 (92.01%) of the pediatric residents acknowledged having a Facebook account, of whom 888/1628 (54.55%) reported daily use and 346/1628 (21.25%) reported using Facebook a few times a week. Residents frequently viewed posts that violated professionalism standards, including use of derogatory remarks about patients (1756/3256, 53.93%) and, much less frequently, about attending physicians (114/1628, 7.00%). The majority of the residents properly identified these postings as inappropriate. Residents had frequently viewed a post similar to one showing physicians drinking alcoholic beverages while in professional attire or scrubs and were neutral on this post’s appropriateness. Residents also reported a lack of knowledge about institutional policies on social media (651/1628, or 40.00%, were unaware of a policy; 204/1628, or 12.53%, said that no policy existed). A total of 372/1628 respondents (22.85%) stated that they had never received any structured training on social media professionalism. Conclusions: Today’s residents, like others of their generation, use social media sites to converse with peers without considering the implications for the profession. The frequent use of social media by learners needs to change the emphasis educators and regulatory bodies place on social media guidelines and teaching professionalism in the digital age.

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